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红拳体系内容与技法特点

发布: 2013-11-26 15:49 |  作者: webmaster |   来源: 本站原创 |  查看: 26248次

红拳起源于周、秦,盛行于明、清,是陕西地方拳的主要拳种,它发源于陕西省关中地区,历经千百年的风雨沧桑,完整地流传至今,其精湛的技法,丰富的红拳文化,被称为中国传统武术的活化石。

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红拳在流传过程中形成了内容充实的完整体系,而且保留了古老的单式技法和组合技法。它包括“盘、法、势、理”及打手对抗和套路运动两类形式。依据红拳的内容特点及历史的发展演练所形成的拳系,是红拳形成了一系七拳。一系即红拳拳系,七拳,指红拳拳系的七个拳种。即:1、炮拳;2、红拳(此为红拳拳系中的一个拳种);3、九拳;4、子拳;5、通背拳;6、花拳;7、醉拳。陕西武术网\ N&t\&I2O!tQ

七个拳种概括了红拳所有的拳种类别、技法、功能、劲力架势、风格特点等方面。有硬进猛闯、斩、揭、捅、抹,势如破竹的炮拳;有柔力带刚、劲力绵长的通背拳;有巧击闪打、纵跳刁拿的子拳(猴拳);有反败为胜,扑跌打滚的醉拳;有势工行美,繁华藻丽的花拳、红拳等。陕西武术网r0}9{ @ { \'S3G&]d

红拳拳系以“盘、法、势、理”自成体系是基于红拳特定的地理位置、历史文化、风土人情,包括了拳系所有的拳械及打手对抗拳理等内容。

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一、红拳盘、法、势、理

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1、盘陕西武术网@Yk4ay%B['ol0o.v

盘功分软十大盘和硬十大盘功,软十大盘功是以地面为依托物,以自身体重为负荷的静力,以柔韧为主的训练方法,每盘左右练习,要求周身放松,缓慢练习,意随势行,依据动作要求进行意识调息,内能安舒神经,养腑脏促气血运行;外能灵活体躯,增强柔韧。有“腿不盘软”、势不盘柔不予教拳之说。陕西武术网.tO#b$G Wj.f8nn

十大软盘是:一盘撑补势;二盘力推泰山势;三盘霸王举鼎势;四盘千把攒势;五盘孤雁盘翅势;六盘雀地龙势;七盘燕子禽泥势;1、盘单足独立势;九盘靖王托塔势;十盘魁星点斗势。陕西武术网#l}6~%EL$q.YYe

硬十大盘是借助器械,以对抗性的,以提高自身抗击打能力,辅以药物,配合呼吸的一种内外互修的功法。

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十大硬盘是:千字捶、千把攒、打桩吊手、梅花桩、盘发举登、滚臂、磕树、举锁子、缠线、拔蒜及不同器械的功法练习。

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2、法

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即打法,主要有“踩腿审进、钻靠刁打、交口明、行一实二、声东击西、后发制人,闪绽腾挪、飞步刁打”等,单势有百余之多,组手排子如:五虎群羊、六把扇子、蜜蜂采花、排子手、九手排子,十二镫锤手等亦有几十手之多,打手母子九拳及打手跑拳程式——门子相辅并习,组成红拳完整的打手体系。陕西武术网Y$~ s`~0a4u6r

1)手法陕西武术网6H1} |#`r p3[

手法是指近身实战攻防变化的技法法则,实践训练时叫“打手”。红拳的手法是以撑斩为母,组排为形,零招散打,汇集成串的打手体系,亦即红拳之精华所在,八种打法“撑、斩、勾、挂、缠、拦、沾、挎“,在拳械中得以发挥。陕西武术网9qKVk#J&XYS

2)排子手陕西武术网3e\ ^Tw)sV$I

排子手意味着可单练,也可对练,单习排子手时可左右互换,亦进亦退。两人盘排子时,其中一人按排子手格式出招,另一人处于守势,做相应的防御动作,对练是双方切磋,即“走门子”,亦称“打手跑拳”,以各种手法为主,身法,腿法为辅,故名排子手。陕西武术网%k;mJ&~*b?;K ua

高派红拳排子有四排子,打手排子,十排子,十二排子,排子红等;邢派红拳排子有:六把扇子、五虎群羊、江南九手排子等。习练者要经常进行“跑拳打手”的技法练习,以提高自己的实践水平。

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3、势

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势即套路,含拳械对练。现流行较广的套路有:小红拳、大红拳、二路红拳、太祖红拳、长小红拳、太宗红拳、粉红拳、老红拳、关东红拳、关西红拳、六架势、四门捶、四把捶、连手捶、十字大启、鹞子入林、八步、侠拳、六趟、虎翻身、陕西通背、陕西梅花、炮捶、花打四门、三合门子、九翻拳、大梨花拳、四九拳、铁靠子九拳、鹞步拳、七星锤、九排子、十二排子手、三十六排子、醉打山门等。器械有六合大枪、太师鞭、五虎断门刀、步战刀、挂手刀、阴手枪、琶琵棍、五虎群羊棍、天启棍、四门刀、倒手鞭、行剑、大小连枷、小奏枪、线锤、提拦刀等,据《大清拳礼序秘籍本》、《红拳拳谱》统计,红拳拳械套路有二百余套之多。

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红拳套路分快练、慢练两种形式:快练讲究快慢相继、柔里带刚、舒展大方、高如泰山、低如鸟雀,起伏分明,拦斩凶猛,拍打脆响,气势磅礴,进步如鸡窜,出捶如放箭,身势如闪电、脚底如鱼窜。拨步如风,站步如钉,势稳步清;慢练讲究周身放松,用气不用力,势式连贯,行云流水,拧腰摆胯,探膀伸进,轻如鸿毛,重如泰山。陕西武术网&b{)j I(R$b

红拳有内场,外场教学之别,套路属外场入门之功,可使学者身法灵活,步法协调,可下场表演,又可强身健体,是一种主要的体育项目,内场教学是以单操手为主,以实战形式一招一势打出的。是以实战技法为主的训练方法。

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4、理

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即红拳拳理。红拳的拳法拳理,已远远超越了武术范畴,其以阴阳学说、五行、八卦、易理为指导思想,内容涉及到医学、生理、运动、力学、美学等领域。红拳以《红效新书·拳经摘要》做为拳法理论基础,注重技击性,现存红拳打手歌五篇,即《红拳拳谱》、《红拳跑拳打手》、《八红拳八大步法》、《红拳用武要言》、《红拳练功方法(药物)》等,还有红拳拳谱口诀扎字,用武要言,图谱,师徒传承要诀等。

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二、红拳技法特点

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红拳的技击以“撑补为母、勾挂为能、化身为奇、刁打为法”十六字诀为技击法则。以撑补撑斩为其母,勾挂缠粘为其能、化身闪绽为其妙,钻身贴靠,刁打巧击为其法,尽显八法之变。

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1、撑补为母

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“撑”和“补”的关系就是防与攻的意识,撑为防,补为攻,作为根本,“补”乃是技击变化之源,要求习练者要明白“撑中有补、补中有撑”、“以撑换补,以实换撑;以补换补,以撑换撑。”“撑来换斩”总之是“撑”与“补”变化随情,紧密关联。何况在“撑补”中还带藏着巧妙的“劈斩”,仅就“撑”而言就有“单、双撑”,“翻撑”、“紧撑”、“带撑”、“化撑”、“转撑”及“却地撑”、转身“撑”之区别。红拳中的“撑”不是一般的硬碰直撑,而是滚化、斜转的园变的“撑”,“撑”法令人称奇。噢妙无穷。陕西武术网*Mu:Ffy/fT

2、化身为奇陕西武术网S*~1o hT q K"C;E s:`[

武术界有“拳家的身,贵如金”之说。红拳特别重视“化身”的训练,讲究自身不能化,即不能进身制敌,更不能避敌取用。在化身方面强调:身是一条线,不是一个面,侧变肩要活、肩活步为先“。拳法讲:“侧身换膀练得精,就是神仙也不中”。“左非右,右非左,退不进,进有退”,突出表现一个“奇”了得。

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化身不仅使拳脚变化,进退相联,尤为可贵的是削弱对方的力,借力趁势取胜。红拳的主张不是以力拼力,以猛对猛,而是“拳技功夫真,一巧破千斤”,要破千斤没有化身的本事就根本不行。要“化身”必须注重身法训练。要求在盘功练架时要势扎牢,架拉满,功到位,法自然,劲舒畅,要把“化身为奇”体现在练身法当中。陕西武术网,I4Y%d9E NFy!}!x

3、勾挂为能

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“勾挂”是红拳里的“云手”,在诸多套路中都有,拳谱中有“练好云手和抹手,打遍天下无敌子”,红拳突现出的特点是一个“轻”字,因而“勾挂”的手法最能表现出“轻”的优势。开始习练时,师傅要求学生要掌握“高栅低压,里勾外挂”的技能,到了高级训练中就强调“高不栅,低不压;里不色,外不挂,取胜制敌只一下”。这个秘诀是“有影无影,见形变形,一势三翻,连环妙用”。什么是“勾”?什么是“挂”?,“勾”中变招,“挂”必带卸,“勾挂”有高低势之分,亦有单双势之分,但都应在变化中加以运用,且能变化无穷。陕西武术网5V iP.W?lg

4、刁打为法

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“刁打”是红拳里最突出的技击特征。“刁”是“审”对方之情而发,与“打”相联,不进即“刁”而退之,如进“刁打”并用。以“刁”消对方之力,用“打”又以“勾”而退避。“刁打”可贵之地,均在对方要害之处,尤以击打点破穴道为秘,所以“刁打”是贯穿在红拳的始终之法。陕西武术网"fr ~o]-C5R5BN6s

5、刚柔相济,阴阳互补,尽八法之变陕西武术网V:z/R#p z9f7?O

红拳讲究“不招不架只是一下,犯了架架,十下八下”,它以撑、斩、勾、挂、缠、拦、沾、挎为主要的技法,构成了红拳技击法则,形成了变化莫测的红拳技法特点。陕西武术网`;FO)g7^ h

步八法:弓、马、夺、偷、窜、闪、纵、滑。

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拳八法:撑、斩、勾、挂、缠、拦、沾、挎。陕西武术网_/`R go(r

棍八法:封、摩、揭、挑、搬、提、裙、拦。陕西武术网3a$@u.G4x'} lf5B%yI

枪八示:封、闭、拿、捉、搂、提、缠、还。

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刀八法:提、扎、撩、砍、滚、摩、擒、拿。

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鞭八法:纵、横、遮、提、领、劈、刁、打。

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剑八法:削、撩、刺、扎、抹、带、圈、斜。陕西武术网,tg1?QsXd m _

连枷八法:拍、断、奇、卸、带、缠、送、吊。陕西武术网)l2e"J-DM*pHb

6、单招训练,组排为形,尽显手法腿法连击之妙

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红拳有最古老的单式训练方法,将套路中的招式拆开一式一式练习,最终形成技击性极强的招法,以排子手组合形成技法套路,两个人可互相配合练习,以提高实战效果,而且,其技击手法连续使用,招招制敌,变化莫测。陕西武术网p:l4t D {$x

7、敏捷的身形,灵活的手法陕西武术网 Q8Z0a;P]U;t

红拳以出手敏捷,快速多变为其长,劲力以弹性为主,出拳以螺旋为法。“寸劲最为难,以长能制短,伸臂探膀,拧腰要捩挎”。实距中闪展敏捷,出手见红,腾挪灵活,加之手脚齐发,上踢下打,手到步到,刁打巧击,发劲脆快的技击特征,形成红拳独具特色的技击特点。

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总之,红拳以柔为主,但外柔内刚,以轻巧见长,但轻而不浮;拧腰捩挎。侧身换膀,运动多走直线,强调内外合一,形神兼血,形成了招势古朴,拳架工整,技法明确,动静分明,刚劲有力的演练风格。(供稿:李毅虎)

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