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红 拳 述 真

发布: 2013-11-01 09:48 |  作者: 李毅虎 |   来源: 本站原创 |  查看: 20944次

红 拳 述 真
  
  陕西红拳,是中国“查、华、炮、红”四大武术流派之一。它发源于陕西关中地区,拳域陕、甘、宁、青、新、川等十余省,内容丰富,历史悠久,自成体系,是中华武术宝库中的一个优秀,重要的拳种。
  自周秦细脉微博初动,至唐宋大河小溪跳浪,近千年历史成长之陕西红拳到明清之际,已是响遏行云,纷呈华章。
  千百年来,红拳在西北一带,尤其在关中地区,涌现出无数的武坛名流,对红拳的发展历程起到了极大的推进作用。三原“鹞子”高三(高占魁),潼关“饿虎”苏三(苏海潮),临潼“黑虎”邢三(邢福科),“通臂”李四,被誉为“关中四杰”,四人均精于红拳,功力深厚,拳理精绝,他们在原红拳的基础上,不断吸取别的拳种之精华,融合内外家拳法之长,使红拳成为一套集盘、法、势、理“八字八法”及打手对抗等一大武术流派。
  在武术界,素有“东枪西棍关中拳”之说,陕西红拳是一种集内外家之长,经过历史烽烟的锤炼,最终形成了外柔内刚,招法妙巧,劲柔势轻,气顺招圆,巧击刁打,劲尚脆快,动静分明,实用性极强的拳种,其基础训练是软、硬十大盘功,它是一套以地面为依托物,借助器械,以自身体重为负重物,以柔韧拔筋为目的训练方法。以大小红拳、炮锤为基本拳法,学好它们以后,能为今后学习更深的内容打下深厚的基础。
  红拳的对抗训练即打手练法,它是以红拳拳法为基础,通过对抗搏击来提高实战应用的一种手段,其法招招相扣,势势相连,步步相追。其招法有排子手,打手排子,散手对抗,如蜜蜂乱采花,五虎战群羊,十二镫州锤及打手跑拳。
  红拳拳系完整,套路丰富,计有大小红拳,炮锤,太祖拳,二路红,子拳、连手捶,四门锤,霸王锤,六合手,刁打六合手,四究拳,燕青拳,陕西通臂拳,陕西六路花拳,少林八步,二十四式,行拳、太祖红、粉红、燕青六趟等百余套。
  红拳器械也相当丰富,计有枪、棍、剑、矛、叉、戟、双头枪、刀、斧、铲、拐、锤、锏、耙、弓、鞭,大小连枷等等。
  红拳的拳法理论,以远远超越了武术范畴,其以阴阳学说,五行、八卦、易理为指导思想,内容涉及到医学、生理、运动、力学、美学等领域。打手要言,套路歌诀,口诀扎字,拳谱,用武要言等内容相当丰富。今摘录一些老前辈的口诀扎字如下,供同仁参考:
  “手眼身法步,精神气力功,周身拧一体,进取即成功。”
  “步法为元帅,赢人全靠它来带。”
  “功夫在天天积累,经验须时时磨练。”
  “十大盘是基础,红拳、炮锤跟着走,打人还凭排子手。”
  “捶打肩靠脚跟着上,赢人还须一劲连。”
  “武以德为先,德高则功深。”
  “侧手换膀要练精,斩捅揭抹技在胸。追身赢人上下随,胜输全在一交中。”
  “侧进膀,迎面掌,斩、撑不留情。”
  手上的串子,脚底下的绊子。
  “撑、斩、抹随身上,贴身靠打往前冲。”
  陕西是华夏文明的发源地,深厚的历史文化,造就了这个独具特色,独特魅力的拳种,千百年来,在许许多多的拳种流派中都能发现陕西红拳的影子,戚继光在其所著的《纪效新书》中记载太祖红拳的三十二式拳法中,就有红拳招式,一直传承至今。红拳具有独特的陕西色彩,方言,传授方式,红拳前辈们穷毕生精力研究拳艺,无人问津和继承,得不到社会认可,现今只能在力所能及的小圈子传承,许多珍贵的拳法理论面临失传,家乡的“土特色”有绝种之危险,失之可惜,有待我们尽快地挖掘整理,抢救。
  红拳经过数千年的风雨苍桑,经无数前辈传承,靠的是精湛的红拳技法,红拳宗师鹞子高三将红拳分为“红拳、花拳、九拳、子拳、通臂拳、炮拳、地躺”七大类,使陕西红拳具有其独特的魅力,其拳势正行美,势雀筋软,繁华藻丽,扁身远击,招势巧妙,手法连环,步法刁钻,身法灵活,操之能健身,用之能自卫,形成了以手法:勾、挂、缠、拦、沾、挎、斩、撑;步法:奇、弓、马、纵、退、蹿,即,身法:转、偏、拧、闲、斜、绕、躲、扭,枪法:闭、封、捉、拿、提、搂、斥、还。刀法:扎、撩、提、砍、滚、摩、拿、擒、等八字八法,及“撑补为母,勾挂为能,化身为奇,刁打为法”十六字诀。其打法钻身贴靠,刁打巧击,里勾外跨,高棚低挂,以步制人,上下起伏,斜身正击等技法。
  红拳在健身上有其独特的作用,它蕴含着深刻的东方哲学思想,根据中医学的理论,人体阴阳平衡则身体健康,反之会生病。阴阳学说是一门科学,阴阳存在于世界万物之中,人体也是由阴阳构成的,陕西红拳正是以阴阳学说,五行八卦,易理为指导思想,通过招法的运动,攻防的变化,而变化是以“易”之阴阳学说为指导思想,阴阳即是矛盾着的双方,相生相克,相互依存的对立统一体,通过相互运动来达到阴阳平衡,经脉畅通,思维敏捷,精力倍增,身手灵活,身轻如燕,反映迅速等。
  习练红拳不仅能强身健体,它还能改变人的气质,提高人的修养,陶野人的情操,增强人的意识,磨练人的胆略,开阔人的视野,使人有一种上进心、正义感,社会责任心。
  今天的红拳,在陕西红拳文化研究会会长雷志敏,秘书长邵智勇等的领导下,在红拳传人、爱好者的关怀下,在各界人士的支持下已经启动了申报世界级物非质文化遗产的宏伟计划。红拳人通过十几年来组织比赛和交流活动,特别是将红拳与文化连在一起,对继承、发扬红拳,有着更深远的作用。在陕西这片有着深厚文化底蕴的土地上,在一大批红拳老前辈传人,爱好者传播下,红拳这个在陕西土生土长的独具其魅力的拳种,未来的发展会更加美好。

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【作者简介】 李毅虎,男,19657月生,西安市长安区人,大学文化。西安市西北红拳培训中心副主任、宣传部主任。西安弘博职业技术培训学校教务处副主任、总教练。陕西省华阴市武协技术顾问等职。

    自幼习武,少年时随长安红拳名家杨天成的弟子曹印武前辈习红拳基本拳械。学生时代随曹印武、徐合良、于金章等习红拳、连手锤、打手排子、炮锤、四把锤、大小红拳、八步、六趟、鸡腿龙爪手、龙摆尾等拳械功法。1982年在北京国防科工委服役期间,随甘肃兰州战友陈国,地方名家李天杰、吴春林、李宏斌、李天民、王保亮等习静虚派天罡龙虎门,甘肃地方拳、八卦、形意、心意、咏春、陈式太极等诸多门派。1983年参加全军运动会获红拳炮捶二等奖,1985年参加国防科工委系统运动会获红拳连手捶一等奖、八卦掌—八卦散手掌二等奖等。陕西武术网'e Nva'dE Ho

        1987年回地方后拜武当赵堡太极名家原宝山习赵堡太极小架,后又拜郝风东师傅学习。陕西武术网A a.M0l/Y A@

    1990年起先后随师兄弟们成了武馆、武校、职业技能培训学校、任副校长、教导处主任、总教练等职,为企事业单位、公司、大专院校培养了大批安保人员。

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    在武术教学中,本人对传统武术博击有较深的研究,并提倡大力开展传统武术博击的训练与研究,在工作之余,先后在全国各大武术杂志、网站上发表有武术功理功法论文30多篇。

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